Fundamental aspects of English grammar.

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1.Parts of Speech.

English words are categorized into different parts of speech, including nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections. Each part of speech has its own role and function in a sentence.

2.Sentence Structure

Subject and Predicate: A basic English sentence typically consists of a subject (who or what the sentence is about) and a predicate (what the subject is doing or what is happening to it).

Phrases and Clauses.

3.Sentences can be broken down into smaller units called phrases and clauses. Clauses can be independent (can stand alone as complete sentences) or dependent (require an independent clause to form a complete thought).

4.Tenses.English verbs can be conjugated into different tenses, indicating when an action takes place (past, present, future). Common tenses include past simple, present simple, future simple, present continuous, past perfect, etc.

5.Agreement Verbs must agree in number (singular or plural) with their subjects.

6.Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement

Pronouns must agree in gender and number with the nouns they replace.
Articles: English has two articles, “a” and “an” (indefinite) and “the” (definite), which are used to specify or generalize nouns.


Adjectives and adverbs are used to modify nouns and verbs, respectively. They provide additional information about the subject or action.


Proper punctuation is crucial for clarity and meaning in writing. Common punctuation marks include periods, commas, semicolons, colons, question marks, exclamation marks, quotation marks, and more.

9.Word Order English.

Typically subject-verb-object SVO word order in declarative sentences. However word order can vary in questions, exclamatory sentences and certain grammatical structures.


English verbs can be in active or passive voice, which affects the sentence’s focus and structure.

11.Conditional Sentences.

English uses different conditional forms (e.g., zero conditional, first conditional, second conditional, third conditional) to express varying degrees of possibility and hypothetical situations.

12.Direct and Indirect Speech

Reporting speech or thoughts can be done using direct speech (quoting the exact words) or indirect speech (paraphrasing what was said).

13.Gerunds and Infinitives.

Verbs can be used as gerunds (verb + -ing) or infinitives (to + base form) in various sentence structures.

14.Modal Verbs.

Modal verbs (e.g., can, could, will, would, should, must) are used to express ability, necessity, permission, and other modalities.

15.Relative Clauses.

These clauses provide additional information about a noun and are introduced by relative pronouns (e.g., who, which, that).


Conjunctions such as “and,” “but,” “or,” “if,” “because,” and others are used to connect words, phrases, or clauses in sentences.

Understanding and applying these grammatical rules is essential for clear and effective communication in written and spoken English. However, it’s important to note that the English language is versatile, and there may be exceptions and variations in certain contexts or dialects.